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Tree Diseases & Pests

Cottony ash psyllid (left) and forest tent caterpillar (right)

The information below will help you identify and control tree pests and diseases found in Saskatoon.  

Aphids

What is an aphid?
Aphids are fragile, pear shaped insects measuring approximately 2mm in length. They are usually pale green in colour, but can be a variety of colours.

What kind of damage is caused by aphids?
There are many different species of aphids that attack many different plants. In Saskatoon's urban forest it is common to see aphids on American elm and Manitoba maple.  Damage caused by aphids does not typically impact plant health but can affect leaf shape and size.  Aphids can produce honey dew, a sticky substance that can adhere to sidewalks and vehicles.   

How do I control aphids?
Typically aphids do not require treating with insecticides.  Some are available and registered for aphid control.  Also read the label and use as directed.  In some situations ladybird beetles (ladybugs) can be used to control aphids.   

Ash Leaf Cone Roller

Ash Leaf Cone Roller
Leaf affected by ash leaf cone roller

What is an ash leaf cone roller?
This insect is a newly introduced pest of ash trees in urban areas. The ash leaf cone roller is a small brown moth with a wingspan of 1.2-1.4cm. Eggs are laid on young ash leaves. The larvae, after hatching, are quite small. They feed between the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. This type of feeding is also known as leaf mining. When larvae are finished feeding, they emerge from the leaf and use silk threads to drift to other leaves. At the new leaf, the larvae roll the leaf into a cone. Inside the rolled leaf the larvae pupate and the adult emerges. The adult moth emerges in summer and enters into a state of summer sleep until the fall. Adults then seek out a place to survive the winter emerging the following year.

How do I control ash leaf cone caterpillars?
Damage created by the ash leaf cone caterpillar isn’t significant enough to warrant any control measures. It is important to keep your tree healthy through watering and pruning.

Ash Plant Bug

What is an ash plant bug?
The adult insects are oval, 0.5 to 1.7 mm long, and are pale yellow to brown or black, with pink markings on the back. Nymphs, the immature stage, are green with black spots.

What kind of damage is caused by ash plant bugs?
Ash plant bugs feed on ash tree leaves by piercing and sucking to obtain nutrients. In doing this, the surrounding tissue is killed, creating a stippled appearance. While the damage will not kill the ash tree, it is unsightly.

How do I control ash plant bugs?
For control of minor infestations, a hard blast of water will often remove the insects from the tree.

Box Elder Bugs or Maple Bugs

What is a maple bug?
Maple bugs are an insect that feeds by sucking the nutrients from the plant tissue. They are small, approximately 1.0 - 1.5cm in length, and black with red markings.

What kind of damage is caused by maple bugs?
Maple bugs will feed primarily on the seeds of Manitoba maple (box elder) and sometimes green ash. These insects are harmless, but they can become a nuisance when they congregate in large numbers on sidewalks, garages or sides of houses.

How do I control for maple bugs?
Maple bugs can most easily be dealt with by sweeping them into a garbage bag or by using a vacuum when they are abundant.

Cottony Ash Psyllid

Cottony Ash Psyllid
Trees affected by Cottony ash psyllid

What is cottony ash psyllid?
Cottony ash psyllid (CAP) is a non-native pest that is impacting black and mancana ash trees throughout the city.  These trees are particularly susceptible to this pest and the combination of dry conditions and an insect infestation can eventually lead to tree loss.

What does cottony ash psyllid  look like?
CAP are very small (2.95-3.57 mm), light green to yellow-green pests. Because of their size, the presence of psyllids is most easily recognized by the damage they create:

  • White cotton curled within or along leaves.
  • Heavily infested trees will often be partially defoliated with some of the remaining leaves twisted into a corkscrew or cauliflower shape.

What trees are impacted by psyllid?
The susceptible trees include:

  • Black Ash - Fraxinus nigra and the cultivar ‘Fallgold’ 
  • Manchurian Ash – Fraxinus mandshurica and the cultivar ‘Mancana’
  • ‘Northern Treasure’ and ‘Northern Gem’ which are a cross between Black Ash and Manchurian Ash.

Green ash, white ash, and mountain ash are not impacted.

How prevalent is the cottony ash psyllid in Saskatoon?
The first outbreak of CAP in Saskatoon was in 2006, which was followed by a crash in the population. In 2016, large numbers of CAP were discovered in trees planted within concrete cut-outs in our central business districts and the surrounding neighbourhoods. A city-wide canopy inspection conducted in 2017 found that most susceptible trees have some level of infestation. In addition to the central business district, the neighbourhoods that have been most affected by this recent outbreak include Riversdale, Nutana, Silverspring and City Park.  

What is the City doing in response to this outbreak?
In 2017, the City assessed all 7,000 City-owned susceptible ash trees. Of those, approximately 1,000 were identified as having 50% or less leaf cover and were marked and scheduled for removal in 2018. The remaining 6,000 stood a chance of recovering in 2018 if the CAP population declined; however, this did not occur.

An assessment of the remaining City-owned ash trees will begin in July 2018. Trees identified for removal will be marked, recorded in our inventory and a 2019 CAP Response Plan will be
taken to City Council for their consideration.

How many trees will be impacted?
The City does not know the extent of loss or damage that will result from this psyllid infestation.  We know other prairie cities have had substantial losses with psyllid outbreaks.   

The tree in front of my neighbour's property was removed and the one in front of my property looks the same, was it missed?
Trees scheduled for removal in 2018 were assessed in 2017 and marked with a green dot on the trunk. If your tree does not have a green dot, it may not have met our 2017 criteria for removal and will be reassessed in 2018.

I had two ash trees in the front boulevard and only one was removed, why?
The current CAP outbreak is an emerging issue and our goal is to preserve as many trees as possible. In 2017, we were hopeful that the CAP population would collapse and that some
trees would recover. Unfortunately, the decline of trees has been far more significant and over a shorter time frame than anticipated. We will continue to maintain trees that have healthy foliage and are not clearly declining. However, based on the level of decline over the past year, we have established a more aggressive removal criteria for our 2018 assessment.

Will the City remove the tree and the stump at the same time?
Tree removals and stump grinding are two separate operations that are done at different times. It may take up to two years for stump removal.

The tree in my boulevard is completely dead, will large branches or the whole tree break in the wind?
This is unlikely to occur as the trees have only been in decline for one or two seasons. Most of the impacted trees are not mature and without leaves there is less risk of limb or tree failure.

I don’t want to wait for the City to remove the tree in my front boulevard, can I remove it myself?
Not yet. We are currently working on a process that will allow homeowners the option to choose from a list of pre-approved certified and insured tree care companies. If you’re interested in paying an approved tree service company to speed up the removal process, watch for updates on this webpage.

Do I need to request a replacement tree once the tree in my boulevard is removed?
At this time we are considering the resources required for tree replacements and developing a process to manage replacement planting for trees removed as a result of CAP. Until this process is in place, you may submit an online tree request at saskatoon.ca/treerequest.

Do I have to get a replacement tree after mine is removed?
No, at this time you may call us to decline a replacement tree.

Is there anything that can be done to stop this insect from destroying ash trees?
Unfortunately, there is no quick or easy solution to stop this invasive insect. It is moving quickly and there are few proven or effective options for stopping it. Other prairie cities have found that while the investment in chemical controls has slowed its destruction it did not stop the loss of trees. Although certainly devastating, increasing the diversity of our overall forest by replacing these trees with non-ash species will be beneficial in the long term.

The best approach to keep tree(s) less vulnerable to insect infestations is to water between rainfalls, protect your trees from root or trunk damage, and avoid the use of herbicides or excessive salts in the soils near trees. 
 

Dutch Elm Disease

Dutch Elm Disease
Tree affected by Dutch elm disease

What is Dutch Elm Disease?
Dutch elm disease (DED) is a serious disease caused by fungal pathogen Ophiostoma (novo) ulmi. The disease was introduced into North America in the 1930s, and has wiped out millions of elms across Canada and the United States. On July 21, 2015, the first case of Dutch Elm Disease (DED) was confirmed in Saskatoon.

What does a tree with Dutch elm disease look like?

The symptoms of Dutch elm disease are best detected from mid-June to mid-August. Typically, the leaves will start to wilt and turn yellow, then curl and turn brown. Pest Management does annual, systematic, surveillance of elm trees during this timeframe. 

New Elm

Above Left: A healthy elm leaf; Above Right: Tree affected by DED (Courtesy: City of Regina) 

How is Dutch Elm Disease spread?
In Saskatchewan, Dutch elm disease is spread by several species of elm bark beetles. These tiny beetles are able to fly up to two kilometres as the beetles search for elm trees. The Dutch elm disease fungus has tiny spores that stick to the body of the beetle. Bark beetles can carry these spores and infect other elm trees.

What is the life cycle of the disease?
Elm bark beetles spend the winters as adults burrowed into the base of elm trees. In the spring they emerge, flying to the crown of healthy elm trees where they feed. They then fly to elm trees that are sick or dying to breed and lay eggs. The eggs hatch and larvae feed on the inner bark of these trees. By the fall, the larvae turn into adults, emerge from the tree and fly to a new elm to over winter. If the tree they fly from has Dutch elm disease, there is a very good chance the adult will spread the disease to its new host.

What can you do?

Do not prune elm trees from April 1 to August 31. Provincial regulations prohibit pruning of elms during the time when elm bark beetles are most active. Outside the ban period, regular pruning helps keep trees healthy and better able to resist all types of diseases, including Dutch elm disease. Removing dead wood also makes your trees less attractive to elm bark beetles.

The provincial regulations also prohibts the storing, transport and use of elm wood. The only permitted movement of elm wood is to the City of Saskatoon Landfill which is the designated disposal site in Saskatoon.

Responsible tree maintenance protects your trees, and potentially the elm trees in your neighbourhood.

Please report any symptomatic trees to 306-975-2890.

For more information on Dutch Elm Disease:

SOS Elm Coalition

Canadian Food Inspection Agency - Dutch Elm Disease

Saskatchewan Ministry of Environment - Dutch Elm Disease

Emerald Ash Borer

Emerald Ash Borer
Emerald ash borer, photo courtesy of Barry Lyons, Canadian Forest Service

What is the emerald ash borer?
The emerald ash borer is an highly destructive pest of ash trees. The larvae feed beneath the bark, killing ash trees. All ash (Fraxinus species) are susceptible.  Although the emerald ash borer is not known to be in Saskatoon, if established the impact would be considerable as ash are approximately 25% of the trees on City property. The emerald ash borer is difficult to detect and is often well established in a community once it is identified. 

What you can expect from us

The City of Saskatoon installs and monitors traps to help detect the emerald ash borer. Additional traps have been installed by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.  

How you can help us

Emerald ash borer is spread through the movement of infested firewood. To prevent the movement of this destructive beetle, do not move firewood from emerald ash borer infested regions. 

    Forest Tent Caterpillar

    Forest Tent Caterpillars
    Forest tent caterpillars

    What is a forest tent caterpillar?
    Forest tent caterpillars are dark coloured with white spots down their back. Mature larvae are typically 5 cm in length.  The body is covered with long hairs, also known as setae. In June larvae will spin a cocoon and pupate. The adult moth is yellow or tan with a thick, furry body.

    What kind of damage is caused by forest tent caterpillars?
    Forest tent caterpillars feed on a large number of trees, including ash, poplar and chokecherry. In some cases these insects can completely defoliate a tree but trees typically recover. With several years of heavy defoliation trees can decline.

    How do I control forest tent caterpillars?
    Typically outbreaks last 2-4 years and most trees do not decline. During an outbreak of forest tent caterpillars, the large number of insects can be a nuisance. These can be removed from the tree with a blast of water.

    Galls

    Galls
    Tree affected by galls

    What is a gall?
    Galls are malformations that develop on leaves, branches or roots. Galls are caused by nematodes, mites or insects, and to a lesser extent, by bacteria, fungi or viruses. Many galls are very different, depending on the plant material and the gall producer. For that reason, sometimes the organism making the gall can be identified using the shape and colour of the gall.   

    What kind of damage is caused by galls?
    Galls on trees can modify the shape of the affected tissue but typically not affect the health of the tree.  

    How do I control galls?
    Galls on trees typically do not require any treatment.  

    Leaf Miner

    Leaf Miner
    Tree affected by leaf miners

    What is a leaf miner?
    A leaf miner is a generic name for insect larvae that feed between the two epidermal layers of a leaf. Birch leaf miner (sawfly) and the ash leaf coneroller (moth) are common in Saskatoon, but other tree species such as poplar, lilac, oak, and hawthorn are also susceptible to different leaf miners.

    What kind of damage is caused by leaf miners?
    Damage is caused by larvae feeding inside the leaves.  Feeding creates a meandering tunnel under the leaf surface. Typically, the damage does not affect the health of the tree.

    How do I control leaf miners?
    If only a few leaves are affected, leaves can be removed. Generally, no treatments are necessary for leaf miners.

    Spider Mites

    What is a spider mite?
    They are typically less than 1 mm in length and differ from insects as they have only two body segments and four pairs of legs. Spider mites in Saskatoon can attack spruce, fir, juniper and cedar.

    What kind of damage is caused by spider mites?
    Spider mites feed on conifers, causing the needles to turn yellow and fall off. Eggs lay over winter at the base of the needles and hatch in the late spring. Immature stages typically feed on the lower branches and inner-most foliage, causing the most damage.

    How do I control spider mites?
    The City of Saskatoon does not have a control program for spider mites. Consult an arborist or local garden centre for options to control spider mites.